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Regions of abdomen and its contents

For purposes of description abdomen is conveniently divided into 9 regions by the intersection of imaginary planes there are 2 horizontal and 2 sagittal planes.
The horizontal planes
The upper horizontal plane[transpyloric] lies at a level midway between the suprasternal notch and the symphysis pubis,that is at the level of L1 vertebra (transpyloric plane)
The lower plane passed through the upper borders of the iliac crests at the level of tubercles of the iliac crest.
The sagittal planes or vertical planes
The sagittal planes are indicated on the surface by lines drawn vertically midway between the pubis and anterior superior iliac planes. You have to drop two vertical lines from the mid point of clavicle on either sides.
The regions of abdomen  are:
  • Right hypochondrium
  • Left hypochondrium
  • Epigastrium
  • Right lumbar region
  • Left lumbar region
  • Umbilical region
  • Right iliac fossa
  • Left iliac fossa
  • Hypogastrium.
Contents of different regions of abdomen
  • Right hypochondrium - Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, hepatic flexure of colon
  • Epigastrium - Left lobe of liver, stomach, transverse colon, lower end of oesophagus and oesophagogastric junction
  • Left hypochondrium - Fundus of stomach, spleen, tail of pancreas, splenic flexure of colon
  • Right lumbar region - Right kidney and its suprarenal gland, right ureter, ascending colon
  • Umbilical region - Aorta, IVC, portions of stomach, head and body of the pancreas, duodenal loop, mesentery, small intestinal loops, lymph nodes
  • Left lumbar region - Left kidney and its suprarenal gland, left ureter and descending colon, spleen if it enlarges grossly
  • Right iliac fossa - Caecum, appendix, part of ascending colon, lymph nodes, right ovary and fallopian tube
  • Hypogastrium - Urinary bladder, uterus in females, sigmoid colon and rectum
  • Left iliac fossa - Part of the descending colon, part of sigmoid colon, left ovary and fallopian tube, lymph nodes.