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What is Syncope ?

Syncope may be defined as a transient loss of consciousness due to inadequate cerebral blood flow secondary to abrupt decrease in cardiac output. Depending on the duration of syncope, the symptoms experienced by the patient may vary.
Following are the causes of syncope with episodic fainting.
  • Hyperventilation syndrome
  • Transient ischemic attack
  • Severe anemia
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Acute blood loss
Important history to be taken in a patient with syncopal attack are
  • Duration of attack
  • Associated with exertion – Exertional syncope is seen with aortic sites.
  • Convulsion present or absent
  • History of repeated attack
  • Preceding symptoms such as light headedness
What are the disorders resembling syncope?
Hypoxia, Hypoglycaemia, Anaemia, Diminished carbon dioxide due to hyperventilation
Psychogenic -Anxiety/Hysterical fainting