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What are the mechanical causes of Dysphagia

Causes of Mechanical dysphagia 
Oesophageal lumen in adult can distend to 4 cm. Dysphagia starts tor solid food if the lumen is not more than 2.5 cm, < than 1.3 cm dysphagia always present.
I. Luminal causes of dysphagia
  • Large bolus
  • Foreign body
II. Intrinsic narrowing 
A Inflammatory condition causing oedema and swelling
2.Pharyngitis, epiglottitis
  • Viral (herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, cytomegalovirus)
  • Bacterial
  • Fungal (candidal)
  • Mucocutaneous bullous diseases
  • Caustic, chemical, thermal injury
B. Webs  and rings
1 Pharyngeal (Plummer-Vinson syndrome)
2. Oesophageal (congenital, inflammatory)
3. Lower oesophageal mucosal ring (Schatzki ring)
–°. Benign strictures causes  are 
2.Caustic and pill-induced
3Inflammatory (Crohn's disease, candidal,mucocutaneous lesions)
4. Ischaemic
5. Postoperative, postirradiation
6. Congenital
D. Malignant tumours
1. Primary carcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Carcinosarcoma
  • Pseudosarcoma
  • Lymphoma
  • Melanoma
  • Kaposi's sarcoma
2. Metastatic carcinoma
E. Benign tumours
1. Leiomyoma
2. Lipoma
3. Angioma
4. Inflammatory fibroid polyp
5. Epithelial papilloma
III. Extrinsic compression
1. Cervical spondylitis
2.Vertebral osteophytes
3.Retropharyngeal abscess and masses
4.Enlarged thyroid gland
5.Zenker's diverticulum
6.Vascular compression
  • Aberrant right subclavian artery
  • Right-sided aorta
  • Left atrial enlargement
  • Aortic aneurysm
7. Posterior mediastinal masses
8. Pancreatic tumour, pancreatitis
9. Postvagotomy, haematoma and fibrosis