A site for medical students - Practical,Theory,Osce Notes

How will you classify emaciation based on appetite?

Emaciation can occur with good appetite and without appetite
Emaciation with good appetite
1) Diabetes mellilus (inspite of increased appetite).
2) Thyrotoxicosis (inspite of increased appetite).
Emaciation with loss of appetite
1) Pulmonary tuberculosis
2) Disseminated malignancy.
3) Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (slim disease).
4) Anorexia nervosa (psychogenic)
What are common the causes of weight loss
Infections- Tuberculosis, HIV infection
Endocrine causes- Thyrotoxicosis, Diabetes mellitus, Addison's disease
Malnutrition.malabsorption,psychiatric causes such as depression or anorexia nervosa

Significance of clinical symptoms and signs in emaciation 
Following symptoms provide certain clue to diagnosis
  • H /О polyphagia, polyuria is seen in diabetes mellitus
  • Depression seen in anorexia nervosa
  • Irritability (thyrtoxicosis): 
  • Fever (tuberculosis).
Clinical signs that gives clue to etiology in emaciation
  • Exophthalmos (thyrotoxicosis).
  • Heart rate is high in tuberculosis and thyrotoxicosis.
  • Lymphadenopathy present in tuberculosis, malignancy
  • Examine for tremor that is present in thyrotoxicosis.