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What are the complications of ASD ?

Common complications in ASD are
  • Pulmonary artery hypertension
  • Cardiac failure
  • Atrial arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation or flutter)
Rare complications in ASD are
  • Rare complications of ASD are infective endocarditis.
Endocarditis is more common in ostium primum defect and in ostium secundum defect associated mitral valve prolapse. Other complications are Eisenmenger syndrome and paradoxic embolism.
The most common cause of death in AD is cardiac failure. 
Right heart failure is seen in ASD in patients above 30 years. It may be precipitated by
  • Decreased LV compliance as a result of hypertension or coronary artery disease
  • Atrial arrhythmia

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