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Clinical features of congenital heart disease

The majority of congenital developmental anomalies of the heart are present 6 weeks after conception.Congenital heart disease can be cyanotic or acyanotic.
There are three types of congenital heart  disease
Grade 1  -  Left to Right shunts 
Grade 2  -  Right to Left  shunts
Grade 3  -  Obsructive lesions
Clinical features of LEFT to RIGHT shunts(acyanotic heart disease)
  • Frequent chest infections are seen (6-8 attacks first year of life)
  • Tendency for increased sweating that is related to their tendency for developing Congestive cardiac failure
  • Precordial bulge is seen.
  • Hyperkinetic  precordium occur.
  • Tricuspid /mitral mid diastolic murmur is heard.
  • X-ray  show  plethoric lung field + cardiomegaly.
  • Example are VSD,ASD, PDA,AV canal defect

  1. Systolic murmur grade III or more
  2. Diastolic murmur
  3. Cyanosis
  4. Cardiac failure

  1. Systolic murmur less than grade III
  2. Abnormal S2
  3. Abnormal ECG
  4. Abnormal X-ray
  5. Abnormal BP

One major & two minor criteria are essential.