A site for medical students - Practical,Theory,Osce Notes

Overview of Structure ,Formation and Synthesis and detection of Tau protein

Tau protein is a protein that is primarily found in neurons and is a major component of the neurofibrillary tangles that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.


Tau protein is a natively unfolded protein that consists of 352-441 amino acids, depending on the isoform. It has a highly conserved N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain that is variable between isoforms. The protein can exist in both monomeric and aggregated forms.

Formation and Synthesis: 

Tau protein is synthesized in neurons and is involved in the regulation of microtubule stability and axonal transport. The exact mechanism of its formation is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and molecular factors.

In some cases, mutations in the tau gene (MAPT) can increase the production of the protein, which can lead to the formation of aggregates. In addition, environmental factors such as head injury have also been linked to an increased risk of tau aggregation.


There are a number of methods that can be used to detect tau protein, including immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA, and mass spectrometry. These techniques can be used to identify the presence of tau in tissue samples or body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In addition, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can be used to visualize the accumulation of tau in the brain, which can be an early sign of Alzheimer's disease.