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Normal constituents of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their range

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, providing cushioning and support. The normal constituents of CSF and their ranges are as follows:

1. Protein: The normal protein level in CSF is less than 45 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).

2. Glucose: The normal glucose level in CSF is 50 to 80 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). This level should be about two-thirds of the blood glucose level.

3. Cells: The normal CSF cell count is less than 5 white blood cells per cubic millimeter (mm3) and no red blood cells.

4. Chloride: The normal chloride level in CSF is 118-132 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

5. Lactate: The normal lactate level in CSF is 10-25 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).

6. Pressure: The normal range of CSF pressure is 70-180 millimeters of water (mmH2O) when measured by a lumbar puncture.

Any deviation from these normal values can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including infections, inflammatory disorders, bleeding in the brain, tumors, and other neurological disorders. Therefore, analyzing the composition and properties of CSF is an important diagnostic tool for clinicians to evaluate and manage various neurological and neurosurgical conditions.