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Examination of gum

Healthy gum is pink in color, it is adherent closely to the necks of the teeth and have a sharp border.
Features to note are the following.

  • Gingival recession - Teeth appear longer and exposing the cementum with increasing age
  • Gingivitis - Swelling, redness and pain of gum are seen 
  • Pyorrhoea alveolaris - Recession of gingiva, presence of pus in the gingival margin or exudation  of pus on pressure, indicates periodontal sepsis
  • Stippled blue line of gum margin – Lead poisoning - Burtonian line
  • Red spongy swollen gum - Scurvy
  • Bleeding from gum - Gingivitis, scurvy, ITP, Acute leukemia
  • Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis – Herpes simplex virus - Small vesicles on gum, cheek and palate
  • Gum hypertrophy -The causes are drug induced –  Phenytoin, nifedipine, cyclosporin,Pregnancy, Scurvy,Acute leukemia - Monocytic,Gingivitis
  • Epulis - Swelling arising in the gum from the periosteum of maxilla or mandible.