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What are the abnormal shape of chest?

Normal chest is symmetrical and elliptical in cross section.The following abnormalities are noted in shape of chest
Flat chest 
The anteroposterior to transverse diameter ratio is 1 : 2
Present in  fibrothorax
Barrel shape chest
The anteroposterior to transverse diameter ratio is 1:1
Seen in physiological states like infancy and old age and in pathological states like COPD (emphysema).
Pectus Carinatum or Pigeon chest
It is the forward protrusion of the sternum and adjacent costal cartilage
It is seen in
  • Childhood respiratory disease like asthma 
  • Rickets
  • Marfan's syndrome 
Pectus excavatum or Funnel chest or cobbler's chest
This is the exaggeration of the normal hollowness over the lower end of the sternum.
It is a developmental defect.
Due to displacement of heart the apex beat is shifted further to the left and the ventilatorv capacity of the lung is restricted
This is found in marfan syndrome.
Thoracic kyphoscoliosis reduce ventilatory capacity of lung
Harrison's sulcus
It is due to the indrawing of ribs to form symmetrical horizontal grooves above the costal margin, along the line of attachment of diaphragm due the hyperinflation of lung,
It is due to the hyperinflation of the lungs and the strong contraction of the diaphragm contraction
  • Occurs in chronic respiratory disease in childhood-Childhood asthma 
  • Rickets 
  • Blocked nasopharynx due to adenoid enlargement
Rachitic and scorbutic rosary
It is the beed like enlargement of costochondral junction in rickets and scurvy
Scorbutic rosary: It is the sharp angulation, with or without beading or rosary formation, of the ribs, arising as a result of backward displacement or pushing in of the sternum,
Scorbutic rosary is painful
Teitz disease
It is characterised by congenital costochondral prominence.
Other abnormalities are
Abnormalities in shape of chest
1.Droopingof shoulder
2.Hollowing of supra/infradavicular fossae is seen in
Bulging of chest wall Seen in  Mass lesion, Empyema
3.Crowding of ribs
Patient should be in sitting or standing posture
Crowding of ribs should be made out from the back
Standing behind the patient by sliding the fingers along the lower intercostal spaces on either sides and comparing them