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Mechanism of continuous murmur

1.High pressure system communicating with low pressure system
  • RSOV to RV, RA ,Pulmonary artery.
  • Coronary artery fistula to cardiac chamber.
  • PDA.
  • Aorto pulmonary septal defect.
  • Pulmonary AVF.
  • Systemic AVF.
  • Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery.
2.Narrowing of vessel
  • Coarctation of aorta.
  • Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis.
  • Carotid stenosis.
3.Increased blood flow through vessels
  • Venous hum - Devil’s murmur - root of neck.
  • Venous hum (Cruveilhier – Baumgarten murmur) - umbilicus - in portal hypertension.
  • Intercostal arteries - Coarctation of aorta.
  • Bronchopulmonary anastomoses.
  • Pulmonary atresia and TOF.
  • Internal mammary artery - Mammary Souffle in pregnancy.