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Forcible apex beat

Apex beat is forceful and illsustained
In foreful apexbeat palpating finger is lifted above the plane of the adjoining rib, but it is ill sustained.This is due to diastolic overload of left ventricle. There is no obstruction of blood flow from left ventricle
Mechanism of forceful apex beat
It is due to diastolic overload of leftventricle leading to increased force of contraction
Causes are
  • Aortic regurgitation AR
  • Mitral regurgitation -MR
  • Patentductus arteriosus-PDA
  • Ventricular septaldefect-VSD 
  • Hyperdynamic state.