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Koilonychia and its causes

Koilonychia is the spoon-shaped deformity of the nail ,it is usually found in chronic iron deficiency anaemia.
Koilonychia develops due to the retarded growth of the nail plate. Koilos' means hollow and onych' means nail.
How will you examine for koilonychia ?
To examine for koilonychias first keep the patients finger at your eye level and look tangentially, you can observe as well as palpate the nail plate for spooning or flattening
What are the stages of koilonychia ?
There are three stages of koilonychia
First stage is characterised by brittle and rough nail
Second stage is charecterised by flattening of nail without longitudinal ridges and the nail is flat
Third stage the nail is spoon shaped and is concave.
What are the causes of koilonychia?
Causes of koilonychias are the following

  • Iron deficiency anaemia
  • Haemochromatosis
  • Raynaud's syndrome
  • Porphyria
  • Occupational

              Motor mechanics
              Rickshaw pullers

  • Ischaemic heart disease
  • Syphilis
  • Inherited—autosomal dominant.