A site for medical students - Practical,Theory,Osce Notes

What is emaciation?

Emaciation is a state of generalised undernutrition, i.e. loss of total body fat and diminution of muscle mass
What is underweight ?
Adults are said to be significantly under weight if their BMI is 18 or less.
What is the appearance of emaciated patient ?
They appear as skin and bone. All the bony prominences become more prominent.
What is malnutrition ?
Malnutriiton is a sign of undernutrition with signs of vitamin, mineral and essential amino acid deficiency .You should also remember that overnutrition is also state of malnutrition.
What is cachexia ?
It is a combined manifestations of anorexia, anaemia plus emaciation, so defined as a profound state of general ill-health.
What are the indicators of nutritional depletion ?
Nutritional depletion can be assessed with anthrapometric and chemical methods
Anthropometric measurements
1) % of weight loss >10% ог undernutrition)
2) Mid-arm circumference <23 cm in male,<22 cm in female
3) Triceps skinfold thickness <10 mm in male,<13 mm in female
Chemical methods
1) Serum albumin (<35g/L)
2) Serum transferrin(<2g/L)
What are the common causes of emaciation ?
1) Pulmonary tuberculosis.
2) Diabetes mellitus (inspite of increased appetite).
3) Thyrotoxicosis (inspile of increased appetite).
4) Disseminated malignancy.
5) Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (slim disease).
6) Anorexia nervosa (psychogenic) - Rare.
The other causes are malabsorption, malnutrition, cirrhosis of liver. Addison's disease, motor neurone disease.