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Functions of liver and different liver function tests

Major functions of Liver are the following

  1. Blood glucose regulation
  2. Synthesis of glycogen
  3. Synthesis of triacyl glycerol
  4. Synthesis of plasma proteins
  5. Detoxification
  6. Bile production, helps in digestion
  7. Bilirubin metabolism

Biochemical test are done to assess the following
The hepatic function 
To detect hepatic injury
Patterns of abnormalities are more important than single test
May be normal in proven liver disease
Normal value never rules out liver Disease

Classification of liver function test based on laboratory findings
Hepatic excretory function is assessed with following tests
Serum Bilirubin
Urine: Bile Pigments, bile salt, urobilinogen
Liver enzymes
ALT,AST,ALP,GGT,5’ nucleotidase

Synthetic Function
Total Proteins
Serum albumin, globulins
Prothrombin time

Special Test
Alpha1 antitrypsin
Alpha fetoProteins
Classification of liver function  based on clinical aspects
Markers of liver dysfunction
Serum Bilirubin
Urine: Bile pigments, bile salt, urobilinogen
Total proteins, albumin
Prothrombin time
Blood ammonia

Markers of hepato cellular Injury
Markers of cholestasis
5’ Nucleotidase